Çifte Minareli Medresse
Since it has no inscription, its real name and date of construction are not known. With the thought that it could have been had constructed by Hundi Hatun, daughter of Seljuk Sultan Alaaddin Keykubad or by Padişah Hatun from İlhanlı Dynasty, it is also called as Hatuniye Madrasa. It is generally accepted to be constructed at the end of 13th century. It has been converted into a cannon foundry upon the order of Sultan Murad the IVth. It has been used as a barracks for some time. The madrasa, whose excavation and restoration has been carried out by General Directorate of Foundations between 1971 - 1972 is being used by Erzurum Yakutiye Municipality.
It is the biggest sample in Anatolia of the madrasas having four liwans and an open courtyard. The crown door having double minarets has a different arrangement with the large tomb next to the main liwan in the south. The deviation in the plan is caused by its being near the city wall. In the front, there are fountain niches other than the crown door form and two semi - round supports. Multi - part cylindrical minarets at two sides of the crown door are ornamented with glazed and non - glazed bricks and their shoe parts are ornamented with mosaic encaustic tiles. Their upper parts from the minaret balcony are destroyed. The plastic - volume plant motifs surrounding the crown door in staged circles and the dragon, life tree, eagle motifs in the panels are the most showy parts of the side. The completed life tree and eagle motifs in the east are thought to explain the power and immortality that goes back to Central Asia Turkish belief, more than being a rigging.
There are rooms covered with domes on both sides of the entrance liwan. The long, rectangular courtyard is surrounded by porches supported with various dimensioned columns and pillars. There is a pool in the mid. The cells in the middle of the porches are double - floored. The small side liwans are covered with star vaults. The internal architecture ornaments are observed to remain uncompleted. Besides the geometric and plant samples seen on cell arches, door - window frames and columns, there are writing strips consisting of verses and hadiths.
At the end of the main liwan, the mummy and body part of the tomb is reached via stairs. There are two sarcophaguses in the mummy part having a cross - like plan in the internal side. The tomb having a dodecahedron plan is the biggest of such monument - graves in Anatolia. The conic upper part is covered with red - colored stones. Its ornaments have been left uncompleted in spite of its all architectural magnificence.