REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF CULTURE AND TOURISM

The Muğla Milas Museum

The Milas Museum was formed for the first time in 1983 with the approval of the Ministry, by gathering the opuses transferred from the Bodrum Museum and the opuses obtained from the excavations on the district borders and was opened for visitors in 1987. The Museum Directorate is located in the Milas Culture Centre building. The Culture Centre is built in a garden having a total surface area of 1556 m² and the area of the building is approximately 400 m². On the entrance floor of the building, the museum exhibition hall and administrative units are located.

In the basement, there are material depots, the opus depot of the Museum Directorate, photography room and laboratory. A garden is used as an open exhibition area of the museum. The movable culture values found in the archaic residence areas in the Milas District Centre and its surroundings are exhibited in the garden.

Golden opuses found in the Stratonikeia excavations, cooked earth candle samples found in the İasos excavations, opuses found in the rescue excavations in and around the Milas, marble sculptures, marble sculpture heads and other opuses purchased from the citizens are exhibited in a chronological sequence in the 11 showcases in the museum exhibition hall. As of June 1998, there is a total of 3737 inventory opuses in Milas Museum, 2615 of which are archeologic, 75 of which are ethnographic and 1047 of which are coins.

1- Gümüşkesen: Gümüşkesen, which is in the Milas District centre is a monumental grave constructed in the 2nd century AD.

2- Beçin: Beçin Fort, which is on the borders of the Beçin Municipality that is 5 km to the district centre, has been constructed over the ruins of archaic period, during the Menteşe Principality period.

3- Labranda: Labranda ruin place that is located 13 km to the District centre is an important religion centre of the Karya Period. In Labranda, which takes its name from the double faced Snow axe labyris, archaeological excavations have been carried out by the Swedes since 1948.

4- Euromos: The most important ruin in Euromos ruin place that is located on the 12th km of Milas - İzmir highway is Zeus Temple that is known as footed among public. Excavation and restoration works were started around Zeus Temple in 1970s by Prof. Dr. Ümit Serdaroğlu, but these works were not continued later.

5- Heraklia: Heraklia ruin place that is located in Kapıkırı Village at 40 km distance to the District centre covers a very large area. Besides the Hellenistic Period buildings such as Athena Temple, the Theatre, Agora, city walls, Endymion, because of its being the centre of episcopacy in the Byzantine period, there are many church ruins on the islands in Bafa Lake. Dr. Annelise Pejchlow from German Archaeology Institute still continues surface researches in Herakleia ruin place.

6- Iasos: In Iasos archaic city that is located in Kıyıkışlacık Village at a distance of 26 km to the District centre, the excavation works that are being carried out by the Italian Archaeology commission since 1960 still continue under the direction of Dr. Fede Berti in and around the agora. Roman monumental grave that is one of the biggest buildings of the archaic city and that is known as Balıkpazarı among the public was restored by Ministry of Culture and after its exhibition and arrangement by the Italian excavation team, it was opened for visits in 1995 as open - air museum.

Labranda

Labranda, which is the holy area of Zeus Labraundos, is in ancient Karia (Southwestern Anatolia), 14 km to the north-east of Mylasa city, to which it is affiliated.

The most ancient findings belong to the year 600 BC. The area that has been used as a holy area in the 6th and the 5th centuries and then as a temple terrace consisted of a single small artificial terrace. A war took place in the holy area in 497 and Karia army was defeated by the Persian army with its alliances.

The 4th century BC is the most important period for the temple. At the times of the satraps named Mausolos (377 - 352 BC) and Idrieus (351 - 344 BC), this place gained a new appearance. In 355, during the sacrifice festival in Labranda, Mausolos escaped from an assassination attempt on his life at the last moment. Buildings such as a series of artificial terraces, one or two entrance buildings, a small Dor building (probably a fountain building), monumental stairs, two large feast halls (androns), a shed building (called oikoi), Stoa and Zeus Temple surrounded with columns must have been constructed after this event. With the death of Idrieus in 344, such works have been stopped. Because of the big fire disaster that took place in the 4th century BC, the holy area has lost its feature of being a cult place.

The excavation works here were started in 1948 by A.W.Persson and have been continuing with intervals since that time. The current excavations are being conducted by P. Hellström.

The access from Mylasa to the holy area was provided via the holy road which is 8 metres wide. The laying traces on this road can be seen even today. The access to the area was provided with one of the two entrance buildings (propylon). These were impressive passage doors made of Milas marble, having two columns and Ionian frontons on each side.

The building called "Dor building" was located to the east of the southern propylon building with its irregular formation, which resembles a rectangle. It is a building that is turned towards north, has four columns, a front courtyard, a marble side and is in Dor style. It had the function of a fountain building. This small building was included in the bath complex.

The stadium lies 200 m to the west of the holy building. Its back side is reinforced with a retaining wall. The starting and final stones used for the competitions still exist at both ends. It is supposed that some competitions were organized in the holy area here during the feast of 5 days.

Beçin, The Capital of Menteşeoğulları Principality

Beçin ruins are placed on a plateau with Milas Plain in complete view, 5 km to the south of the Milas District of Muğla. It is on the highway separating towards the ruin place from Milas - Bodrum - Muğla road fork.

The name of the city is "Pezona" in Middle Age Italian references and "Barçın", "Berçin", "Peçin" and "Beçin" in Turkish - Islamic references. Although there are no definite information relating to the pre - Turkish Period history of the city, some findings make us think that Beçin has a history going back to 2000 BC. The region is known to go under the domination of the Turks in the second half of the XIII century. Menteşeoğulları, who coquered the city, made Milas capital, but at the beginning of the XIV century,the government centre was moved to Beçin, since it was easier to defend. Beçin was the capital of the kingdom during the sovereignty of Tacettin Ahmet Gazi. After the his death in 1391, the region was added to the Ottoman Empire by Yıldırım Bayezid and the government centre was moved to Balat (Milet).

The ruins of the buildings of the city that reached today:

Roman Grave: It is in the residence centre of Beçin today, next to the ruin place road. The chamber is in the form of a grave.
Inner Fort: The ruins that during the period of time took a shape of a fort, are partially based on a temple. The opuses, such as a bath, a cistern and a ruin of a vault building whose existence are found in the area surrounded by city walls, which are in a very bad condition. The bath is thought to be built in the 14th century, during the Menteşeoğulları Period.

Large Bath: It is situated between Ahmet Gazi madrasa and the Inner Fort. It is dated to the XIV century. It is the largest among the baths in the city. The dressing part of the batth (bath) having three liwans is destroyed.

Ahmet Gazi Madrasa: It was constructed by Tacettin Ahmet Gazi, Menteşe Ruler, in 1375 according to its inscription. It has an open courtyard and two liwans. In the main liwan of the madrasa, the graves of Ahmet Gazi and his relatives are located.

Orhan Bey Mosque: It is situated across the Ahmet Gazi Madrasa. It is understood that the building was in construction in 1330s, when İbni Batuta visited Beçin. It has a rectangular plan close to a square. Its entrance and the part of its 1.5m high walls are standing. From the references and the excavation results, it is understood that this is a wood supported mosque.

Ruler Mansion: It is in the north-west of Ahmet Gazi Madrasa. The excavation works are continuing in the building which is thought to belong to the 14th century.

Ruler Bath: It is in the north of the mansion. A water tank, a boiler room and an undressing part of the bath which is longitudinally heated and which has double cells, have been discovered during the excavation works performed in 1995.

Kızıl Caravansary: The caravansary, which is dated to the end of the 14th century or the 15th century, has two floors. The stable part at the lower side is covered with a vault that is partially destroyed. The two parts in the upper side are understood to be covered with a dome.

Chapel: It is approximately 200 m to the south of the Orhan Mosque. It is thought to belong to the Mid - Byzantine Period.
Yelli Mosque: It is in Kepez area. It is dated to the 14th century. It is a building having a square plan covered with a single dome. In its northern side, there is a two-end unit community place.

Karapaşa Madrasa: It is a madrasa having an open courtyard. It is estimated to be constructed at the end of the 14th century or in the 15th century. It is in a very ruined condition.