Used in pressing and art productions as a printing technique, gravure can b defined as graving type, hole printing or carving print. The view to be printed is transformed onto wood, metal or stone plate by means of various methods (hand graving or acid saturation) and then ink is laid on the plate. When the surface of the plate is cleaned the ink stays only in engraved parts and the view on the plate is applied onto the paper. Since its start of use in the 15th century, engraving has been intensively used and developed by artists until present time. At present several artists benefit from engraving techniques. Used in reproduction of pictures in the books printed until the end of 19th century, engraving is used as a printing technique in the form of photo graving or titruk press (rotogravure).
1. Travel arts and travel albums
Gravures contained in travel arts have been published as a separate album or their lithography album.
2. Magazines and annuals
The news about Ottoman Empire published in high quality magazines of Western world were decorated and enriched with gravures. During 1854-1856 Crimea War and 1877-1878 Ottoman-Russia Wars the views of Istanbul and main life in Istanbul as well as views from other cities of the Empire were published in those magazines. Same examples of those magazines are "L'Illustration" published in Paris, "The illustrated London news" and "The Graphic" published in London. In addition, there are two high quality magazines in Greek, namely "Hesperos" published in Leipzig and "He brettanikos aster" published in London, which contained magnificent gravures about Istanbul. Serveti Fünun magazine published in Istanbul is also one of the magazines published with gravures and lithography.
3. Arts about special subjects
One of the main arts in this type is publication containing historical and social subjects about Ottoman Empire. Among the samples are "Tableau general de l'Empire Othoman" by Mouradgea d'Ohsson, "The history of the growth and decay of the Ottoman Empire" by Dimitri Kantemir "Cassell's illustrated history of the Russo-Turkish war" about Turkish-Russion War of 1877-1878 and "Russe et Turcs: la guerre d'Orient".