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Sultan II. Mahmud Han


Father : Sultan Abdülhamid I.
Mother : Nakşidil Sultan
Date of Birth : July 20, 1785
Accession to the Throne : July 28, 1808
Death : June 30 / July 1, 1839

Sultan Mahmud II was accessed to the Ottoman throne as the thirtieth Sovereign. He got a good education at the palace when he was a prince and could closely observe the state administration of his uncle Selim III. His close conversations with his uncle and listening to his advice as a young prince, formed the background of his future decisions. The most interesting item for him during such discussions had been the training and the weaponry technology utilization of the new army which was at the stage of establishment.

As soon as he was enthroned, he executed the “Proof of Concord” in order to draw the provincial notables to his side. He established Segban-I Cedid as the continuation of the New Military Order (Nizam-ı Cedid). This who were against such establishment started the second uprisings and again a reconciliation was made with the rebels, which meant the second victory of political reactions in state affairs.

Events in Greece on the other hand, resulted in Greek independence. While on the eastern border struggles with, “Vahabi’s” who rebelled against the state continued, efforts were made to find solutions to the problems created by the Kaçar Dynasty.

Sultan Mahmud was a slender person of medium height, with dark eyes and a short, blond beard. His wide shoulders made him appear as a heavily-built person. He had a strong will and was decisive. His major objective was “To base the state on a new. Western style structure”. Behind a violent temperament laid an unbelievable touchiness which was probably due to some extent, to the poet side of him. He wrote his poetry under the pseudonym of “Adli”. He liked Turkish music a lot. He did not live through to witness the declaration of the Reformation preparations of which was ordered in his reign. He was one of the initial persons who recognized that the country’s development would be achieved through training and technology. He opened secondary school in order to provide for the extension of education. The first steamship became operational in his reign. He annihilated the Janissary Corps and fought with reactionarism also by closing down dervish convents. The firs census was made in his reign. The postage organization was established and the first official gazette, “Takvim-i Vekayi” published. The title of Prime Minister was given to Grand Viziers during this period. The state took new resolutions concerning attires, and the “fez” was worn for the first time.


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