REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF CULTURE AND TOURISM

Local Calendar

LOCAL CALENDAR

We may define Local Calendar as a systematic arrangement of the couple of time-life assumed the task of remembering and being remembered religious, historical, traditional, educational, faithful, lawful, agricultural, political, economic ties established by  relationship based on long term experiences between natural events, social institutions and events inherited by people of any region in essence as a cultural inheritance.

Local Calendar as known “Local Calendar” designates a year and days  in the form of sections different from generally accepted calendars; sometimes it burdens good or bad features its units. According to generally accepted beliefs in local calendars are included such powers entailing to avoid to do something or to act this or that way in seasons, months, weeks, nights, days, even hours forming the year. While some times in Local Calendars ending a time or divisions have been explained through natural phenomena renewed regularly, some times religious ceremonies, relationships with other communities affecting society, a novelty introduced to the society, a change in the type of production, death of an esteemed person, etc. have shown themselves through an effective event.

In creation of Local Calendars numerous factors have been taken into account.

Geographic Factors: Mountains, rivers, valleys, vegetation and its domestic and immigrating animals available in the environment where people live have been effective in creation of local calendar.

Climatic  Conditions-Seasons: There are numerous examples in relation with reflecting  climatic conditions and seasons in calendar in local calendars used by people in our Country. They are “Zemheri” (intense cold), “Hamsin” ( the period of fifty days following the forty days of most severe winter), “Erbain” (forty days of winter), “Eyyam-ı Bahur” (dog days), “Cemreler” (increase of warmth supposed to fall from the sun, successively, into air, water, and earth in February), “Mart Dokuzu” (the 9th of March), “Leylek Kışı” (winter of stock), “Oğlak Kışı” (Winter of Kid), “Kocakarı soğukları” (Cold spell about the middle of March), “Hıdırellez” ( May 6th,popularly considered as the beginning of summer), “Ekim Zamanı” (Time of Sowing), “Hasat Zamanı” ( Time of Harvest), “Bağbozumu” (vintage), etc.         

Natural Events: Communicable diseases, flood, drought, earthquakes of Erzincan and Gediz causing death of a lot of people and animals are events that are found In local calendars.

Celestial Events: Visual shapes of the Moon, some stars, star clusters, flight of a shooting star have been effective in creation of some local calendars. Some beliefs and practices in our country in relation with the North Star, “ülker” star, moon and sun eclipse have been constituting example on this matter.

Religious Factors: Various sacred nights (Kandiller), sacred months, particulars related with pilgrimage and benevolence, religious bairams (festivals) celebrated in our Country  on basis of Islam principles have constituted as an example for religious events in creation of our Local Calendar.

Economic Factors: Economic occupation which defines social structure, implementations accumulated around weighted production in the society,  events and beliefs system  related therewith  are set up framework of Local Calendar. The best example of this is that in some places months are named differently, e.g. “Döl tökümü” - March, “Çift ayı” - April, “Göç ayı-May, Kiraz ayı-June.

Social Events: Social events such as revolutions, periods ruled by some political parties, victories and defeats, immigrations, etc. have been reflected to Local Calendar.