works, which is based on syllabic meter like minstrel poetry different from
classical school of poetry, the oral literary works whose owners can not be
determined such as proverbs, legends, tales, stories, anecdotes, lullabies,
folksongs, riddles, folk music forms, wailing are all under the name of “Folk
is a poet type which is seen from the beginning of 11th and 12th
centuries in Turkish Folk Literature. It’s believed that the minstrel poet
takes his poetry power from his drinking the wine of love which his master
presented to him in his dream and dreaming the image of his lover. “Folk
poet” is used instead of “Folk minstrel”. Folk mistrals have left many works
having different subjects. Since most of these works were told by illiterate
minstrels impromptu, some of them were forgotten and some of them were protected.
The folk poems of the minstrels are told impromptu.
poems having religion and Islamic mysticism subject are called “Tekke (Dervish-lodge”
are quatrains sang according to the syllabic meter of generally whose teller
are nor known. Bayati word is used to call mani in Eastern Anatolia. The
rhyme order is a-a-b-a
These works are generally in the children traditions and which can
be produced with main rhyme and rhymes and which are arranged according
to the similarities of sounds and words and whose tellers are not known.
They can be classified as
Folk song is
the name mostly used to show every kind of folk poem which is sung with
a melody in oral tradition of Turkey. Names of Lullabies, wailing, folk
poems, tunes can be used according to the classifications of the words and
tune in special conditions.
are literary works which are sung to make the children sleep or to make
them stop crying with a simple language and syllabic meter and with a melody.
are literary works sung with melodies which express the feelings of fright,
anxiety, sorrow and mutiny in cases of natural disasters, deaths, illnesses
and helplessness. Singing a wailing is called crying a wailing and the one
crying a wailing is called “wailer”.
a type of expression which is imaginary, is on unknown time and which does
not aim to make the listeners believe. To draw the attention of the listener
on the take rigmarole are told in the beginning in the end or in some proper
the short literary works which focus on the events of daily lives and which
aims to draw results from the told events and in which satire, witty remorks
and humor exist.
a way of expressing Heal events of life in a long form in which the sounds
and mimics are used in combination with melodies and saz.
They are divided
into two groups according to their dimensions.
stories having a simple structure and which have been taken from a legends,
tales or real lives and which focus only on an event. Telling them may
take at most two hours.
stories which focus on a group of crowded people, the unexpected situations
coming one by one and as a result, the difficult events. This makes the
story to be told in a longer time. These stories may continue to be told
stereotyped words which asks about natural events and human beings, the
living things such as animals and plants, goods, religious subjects and
motives; aiming to make associations. The equivalents of these words are
accepted without any dispute.
the words that we have inherited form our ancestors, that have a certain
opinion and whose tellers are not known and which are used in daily languages.
which are a sort of Folk Literature, making a cultural transfer from past
to today, are one of the areas helping to contribute the structure of human
beings and cultural structure that they produced. Is one of the types of
literature which is formed attributing supernatural characteristics to real
and imaginary beings, places and events, which canalize the individual and
social life of a person with the belief that they are told as real, and
whose tellers are definite. They may be classified according to their subjects
on historical places, people and events
on supernatural beings
on religious subjects.
on plants and trees
on natural surrounding and events
Examples of Legends
May God let
nobody be in difficult situation.
May God let
you get what you desire.
May God let
your child be brought up with mother and father.
May God give
you blessed increase.
May God not
let you in need of others help.
May you see
May God increase
May God give
you a long life
foot be lake, your head spring
May God forbid.
May you be
head be upright
successful in this matter, Congratulations.
we have seen present days
worry, may your life be spared.
My God do
not spare your blessing on my child
I am in very
difficult situation, please save me my God.
I am very well
May you see
turn come next
depends upon health, the rest is in vain.
May God give
extra for you
I wish God,
hope God, be that day today.
May God give
you a harmonious living together.
hands never see trouble !
May it stay
in your hand
May you marry
and see better days
May it be
as you wish
I wish you
live as you like
May you pass
May God bless
your fore fathers
May you live
happily in your new home
May it bring
does good May God save him from bad luck
Let us say
good, let it be good
May God have
everybody to be charitable
May God save
you accident and trouble
May God not
give blind eyes
May God save
you from bad things
May you not
be eaten by everybody
May you be
family with your son, neighbour with your daughter.
life be blessed
May you live
happily in your country, may your mouth be sweet, may it bring you good
(curses) are integral part of our daily life, very important subject of folklore.
Angers, hatreds, rages, irremediable resistances from adults to minors, from
minors to adults, or between furious people have been reflected through these
cursing phrases. They are simple, sincere, clear. Such words are a compound
of hopes and hopelessness, fears and joys, angers and repentances. Some of such
cursing words used in İnegöl are listed hereunder:
God give you thousands of trouble.
God curse you.
God put you in need of a slice of bread,
God punish you
God not make you unhappy
may your ankles broken.
may not attain your desire.
rock fall on your head.
you fall down
you eat humble pie
a big rock fall on your head
you without head
your one day life one day
the devil take you
you burn in fire of hell
you suffer greatly, if God pleases.
you feel much sorrow
your tongue be held and not speak
wish your chin be broken
you be target for double bullets
you not find remedy for your trouble
a wasp sting your tongue
your trouble not be cured
you no longer speak
you hold your tongue
you be come mad
you get no benefit from my milk you suck
your hand and arm be broken off
your hand and leg be useless
blood drop on your hand
your hand and leg got entangled
you suffer from your children
you go but not return
your eye become blind
your eye’s light fade out
don’t make me happy, so you may not see better days
your greed never be satisfied
did not enjoy the advantage of it, it may not bring you benefit.
have spoiled my life, may your life be spoiled.
you have great harm
Blind Devil curse you
your eardrum burst
you be unlucky
you be exterminated
you become baldheaded
have been deeply depressed, Damn you
you become penniless
you not attain your desire
you have done, may you deserve the same
you be worst than me
your family become destroyed
your family die out
wish you were never born
you die because of me
he be frightened to death.
you burst out
you be broken to pieces
you suffer great misery.
you get baldheaded
their urine be stopped
your wickedness cease to exist only by your death
NICKNAMES AND CAUSES FOR GIVING SUCH NAMES
and nicknames are symbols serving people living in a society to know each
other better and to distinguish from one another. Names of ladies usually
consist of soft, sweet, melodic, pleasant and good words to hear. Names of
male are hard words suitable for character of male. These words symbolise
the strength in life style of men.
are encountered as much more determining factor in distinguishing persons’
identity. Among causes for giving nicknames are included such features as
occupation, diligence, laziness, residential area, ethnic root, jealousy,
envy, physical characteristics, attitude towards environment, saying handed
down from the past, etc.
used in İnegöl are the names used nationwide in Turkey. Therefore we find
it unnecessary to give examples from them. Thinking that they may be example
for nicknames and reason for their giving, we have contented with examples
selected from the section of folk. These examples may be listed as follows:
Based on surname of “Acar”, which refers to all members descending from
the same family.
Members of the family whose surname is “Akbaba”
(Those from Germany): They are called with this name because they
lived in Germany for a while.
Çavuşlar: They are called with this name because the father performed
his military service as sergeant
Yaşar : He is called with this name since he earns his life by doing
profession of riding wagon.
Sütçü Hasan: He is given this name because he came from the village
of “Ballık” and sold milk.
Occupation of father is watchman.
Father of the family is barber.
Arif: He is a musician who plays musical instruments in festivals.
Hatçe : This name has been given her because she has spoken too
They are called with this name because they have a mills in their
Selimler: The person whose name is Selim has been called with this
name because all of his family performs the profession of electrical
Dede: He is called with this name because he goes to mosque ten
minutes before the time of “Ezan”
They have their own bakeries.
This family has been called with this name because they have come
from the village of “Gölemen”.
Osman: He is called with name because he does not know what to do.
Mustafa: He has black moustaches
Father of the family involved in the war of Korea
Yusuf: He is given this name to understand his race.
Mustafa: He has come from the village of “Lümbe”.
Ahmet: Because his origin was “Pomak”
Fatma: This name is given to her because her father is deaf.
Ağalar:: Because they have a lot of properties, this name is given
Fadime: She has received this name because she is very fat
This family acquired this name because of their Tatar origin.
Hatçe: She received this name because she goes always to Tekel (Monopoly)
and buys items of monopoly.
Remzi: He is given this name because of his cunningness like fox.
Sümko: meaning cripple “Süleyman”.
Mustafa : He is given this name because he set football.
He is called with this name because he received attention of everybody
while walking with his grandchildren.
Caferler: Because he is very tall he is called with this name.
Karı : She is called with this name because it is believed that
a snake is present in her.
Aziz Efendi (Mr. Aziz from “Sedirli”).
Ahmet Ağa (Mr. Ahmet from “Yağcılar”)
Ali Efendi ( Mr. Ali of slender neck)
Pıcağın Ömer ( Ömer of wooden knife)
Üssün Oyma kapılının Hüseyin ( Üssün of without quilt, Hüseyin of carved
aylığın Ali Bey (Mr. Ali of six months)
PUBLICATIONS ON FOLK LITERATURE
with their stories, Ahmet Z. Özdemir 1994
Declarations of IIIrd International Congress of Turkish Folk Literature
and Folklore, 1995
Declarations of International Silk Rood Folk Literature Symposium, 1995
Declarations of Nasreddin Hodja Symposium, 1997
Declarations of Vth International Congress of Turkish Folk Culture, the
section of Folk Literature 1-2,
Competitions on “Family and Society” and “Tolerance” between Folk Poets
Fütüvvetname whose writer is not certain Assoc. Prof. Ibrahim Aslanoğlu,
Cenknames of Prophet Ali in Folk Literature, Prof. Dr. İsmet, 1997.
of Dobruca Turkish Folk Literature, Prof. Dr. Enver Mahmut, Dr. Nedret
Attribute to Pertev, Naili Boratov, 1998
Anthology of Living Folk Poets, 1993.