REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF CULTURE AND TOURISM

Forms of Settlements in Folk Architecture

Forms of Settlements in Folk Architecture

In the context of folk architecture, homes can be classified in two groups; permanent and non-permanent.

Non-permanent homes are the houses on the high plateau, in which family members live for one season with their animals.

Houses on the high plateaus are composed of two rooms; one for people, the other for animals. These may have two storeys; the ground floor is used for animals, and people live upstairs. In houses which have only one floor, the rooms are built side-by-side.

The nature of the land determines the materials used in houses. In mountainous areas, plateau houses are made of stone, and of wood in forests.

Inside the plateau house, there is a place for the tripod and a large couch for people to sit or sleep on. Apart from when feeding their livestock and performing other such tasks, plateau people spend most of their time in that single room.

Permanent homes are houses built near gardens or fields, where people spend most of their lives except for their time on the plateaus.

Permanent homes differ from region to region, depending on the materials used and ecological conditions.

In folk architecture, climate and natural resources determine the materials used, and economic conditions determine the use that houses are put to.

While settlement is dispersed on mountainous terrain, it is much more compact in villages in flat areas.

The following factors are taken into account when constructing a house;

- It should be close to the fields,
- The ground must be healthy,
- Not to disturb the neighbours,
- It must be close to water resources and communications facilities,
- The house must be built facing south for easier lighting and heating,
- The house must be built towards Mecca.

In every region of Anatolia, foundations are laid on Fridays, digging starts on the right side and the first blow with the pickax is struck by the owner of the house.

When we examine folk architecture, we see that not only the houses themselves but also secondary buildings near them have their own characteristics.

These secondary buildings, which have facilitative functions in daily life, differ from region to region. Economic conditions and climate determine the construction techniques employed and the use these buildings are put to.

Sheds, granaries, larders, haylofts and stables are all examples of secondary buildings. The names and uses of these buildings differ from region to regions. The buildings are built near the houses or else out in the pastures.