Forms of Settlements in Folk Architecture
In the context of folk architecture, homes can be classified in two groups;
permanent and non-permanent.
Non-permanent homes are the houses on the high plateau, in which family
members live for one season with their animals.
Houses on the high plateaus are composed of two rooms; one for people, the
other for animals. These may have two storeys; the ground floor is used for
animals, and people live upstairs. In houses which have only one floor, the
rooms are built side-by-side.
The nature of the land determines the materials used in houses. In
mountainous areas, plateau houses are made of stone, and of wood in forests.
Inside the plateau house, there is a place for the tripod and a large couch
for people to sit or sleep on. Apart from when feeding their livestock and
performing other such tasks, plateau people spend most of their time in that
Permanent homes are houses built near gardens or fields, where people spend
most of their lives except for their time on the plateaus.
Permanent homes differ from region to region, depending on the materials used
and ecological conditions.
In folk architecture, climate and natural resources determine the materials
used, and economic conditions determine the use that houses are put to.
While settlement is dispersed on mountainous terrain, it is much more compact
in villages in flat areas.
The following factors are taken into account when constructing a house;
- It should be close to the fields,
- The ground must be healthy,
- Not to disturb the neighbours,
- It must be close to water resources and communications facilities,
- The house must be built facing south for easier lighting and heating,
- The house must be built towards Mecca.
In every region of Anatolia, foundations are laid on Fridays, digging starts
on the right side and the first blow with the pickax is struck by the owner of
When we examine folk architecture, we see that not only the houses themselves
but also secondary buildings near them have their own characteristics.
These secondary buildings, which have facilitative functions in daily life,
differ from region to region. Economic conditions and climate determine the
construction techniques employed and the use these buildings are put to.
Sheds, granaries, larders, haylofts and stables are all examples of secondary
buildings. The names and uses of these buildings differ from region to regions.
The buildings are built near the houses or else out in the pastures.