REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF CULTURE AND TOURISM

Traditional Housing Units of Yörük Village and Their Architectural Characterictics

Wooden Houses of Anatolia

Traditional Housing Units of Yörük Village and Their Architectural Characterictics

INTRODUCTION

Today the units of the settlement texture of Yörük Village constitute the last existing representative of the past lifestyle. Among the houses the oldest one was built during the 17th. Century, whereas the the majority of them dates back to the end of the 19th Century. Housing units of Yörük Village, have the same characteristics as the house buildings known as the “Traditional Housing Units” whose ground floor have been built of stone and upper storeys have been built with the timber framed technique. Such houses, which present significant differences in accordance with the climatically conditions and material availability throughout western and northern Anatolia, constitute a specific housing unit type, which can be found especially in the Balkan Peninsula. Furthermore, shores which support dows, projections styled differently on each house, are also among the building elements which create variety and richness on the front faces of the houses. So even today, it seems possible to protect some samples of our common cultural heritage by intervening in time in such places where the “rent pressure” has not yet reached.

THE CONCEPT OF YÖRÜK VILLAGE HOUSES

Yörük Village is located in the central Black Sea Region and administratively attached to Karabük Province-Safranbolu County.

This Village is a settlement center, which is established on a slightly inclined plain and contains 144 housing units. Today the units of the settlement texture of Yörük Village constitute the last existing representatives of the past lifestyle. Out of these 119 traditional type houses, 86 were registered in 1997 by the technical staff of the Ministry of Culture “Cultural Heritage Units”.

The most significant characteristic of the layout is the linear arrangement of house buildings, which are very near to each other in rows on a main axle, instead of cluster-type grouping. This main axle ends at a small square around which the village mosque, coffeehouse and the fountains. Two more streets open to this road, which become somewhat narrower after passing through the square. The most frequently seen houses in the village are those having their main entrances on the road and their gardens at the back (sometimes on the sides), built in rows, adjacent or very near to each other. However, there are some mansions, which are surrounded by a garden on its four sides.

Since every house has its own garden, the garden walls have a special significance as an environmental element. The present layout system of the village does not allow to perceive the whole of it at once; rather, a person can see only his immediate environment of the street he stands on.

In Yörük Village, which is a typical settlement of the Ottoman period, housing units have been built on plots with different dimensions and they themselves have different plans and front faces being far from monotonous appearance. Besides the effect of the land-plot formations, this form of settlement/layout must be the result of several other factors such as to protect the buildings from dominant winds, to have them face towards the street, the view, the sunlight, etc. this layout texture, which exhibit variations from the standpoint of building-road relation, presents a dynamic and lively appearance.

The fact that the houses have been built on orderly arranged plots on a very slightly inclined land, prevents to a large extend to have different forms between the ground and living floors which are characteristic for these type of buildings. “Motion Sense” created by the balconies, overhangs and bay-windows on their front faces can be considered as a general characteristic of such timber cross-beam type houses. Furthermore, shores which support dows, projections styled differently on each house, are also among the building elements which create variety and richness on the front faces of the houses.

Traditional houses and courtyard walls, which fringe both sides of the streets which are among the main elements of old urban texture, create a form quite different from each other and far from being monotonous. Such varied perspectives give the streets richer characteristic from the planning and architectural viewpoints.

Organic distribution (lay-out) on land of the traditional type houses, whose ground floor built of stone and upper floors built with the timber-framed style, exhibits a form which conforms with the Classical Ottoman lay-out design (Our old houses are called under such various names as “Turkish Houses”, “Ottoman houses” or “Traditional Houses” by different researchers. In reality, such houses, which present significant differences in accordance with the climatically conditions and material availability throughout Anatolia, constitute a specific housing unit type which can be found specially in the Balkan Peninsula).

The majority of the houses has two floors and a few of them are three-storey houses. This makes the settlement center near to more “urban” characteristics rather than the rural one. This characteristic, which indicates a high economical level that the village has had once, can also be noticed from the craftsmanship of the ornaments inside of the large mansions in the village.

Housetops of these traditional houses have wide eaves and roofs laid with old type “Turkish Tiles”. Belvederes on the top of some larger mansions give an additional aesthetic value to their appearances. Additionally, contrast surfaces which have been formed between the outer walls covered with cream coloured paint and dark brown cross-beams, make the house fronts even more interesting.

Moreover, contrary to the fact expected from such type of settlements, these variations and differences exhibit an integrity, harmony and order as though they were constructed by the hand of a single and same master builder. The truth of the matter is that this is the sign and the result of the conveyance of the training from the masters to the apprentices for centuries and generations. Indeed hear are unchangeable specific construction principles which provide integrity in the texture.

Another characteristic of our traditional housing units is to show respect to “rights” of the neighbouring buildings. Here, each unit was built in a position as not to obstruct the light and view of the one near to it. This fastidious urban culture which we have forgotten for a long time had been born within the framework of the unwritten social and good manner rules which impose not to open a window towards a neighbour’s inner courtyard or not to direct the gutter pipe to the neighbouring garden.

The thoughtfulness and affection mentioned above is certainly the product of the thoughtfulness and understanding of the life of our forefathers. This is a philosophy, which accepts the worldly life, not a goal but a means; and makes the assumption that one is in a kind of exam in this worldly life. Hence, our forefathers honoured any caller to their house as a “God sent” guest and shared their daily bread with him. Similarly they shared their “panorama” with his neighbours. Now, coming to the Yörük Village housing units and their layout plan, we can see all the characteristics mentioned above.

Yörük houses generally have second and even third floors. Furthermore, one can see a more elaborate craftsmanship in their construction. This is because houses have different sections, which allow different activities of the daily life. Hence, due to the differentiation of functions there emerge specific spaces such as “main room”, “bread room”, etc.. Houses in Yörük Village, with their dimensions, impressive appearances and specific spaces give the impression of urban houses rather than the rural ones.

As an additional advantage, they have not been “modernised” and/or “renewed” in the past. In fact, it can be said that these houses have been “aged” only due to the natural factors. This is the very reason, which makes Yörük Village different from its counterparts.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE FLOORS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS IN YÖRÜK VILLAGE HOUSES

As it is known, there is a differentiation between the ground floor and upper floors in our traditional houses. Except the single storey housing units, nearly in all the samples the ground floor comprise such spaces as a stone paved open hall (vestibule / “Hayat” or “Taşlık”), kitchen depot and stable (cow shed). The majority of the traditional houses has been built on the plots, which have been bordered by the streets developed in conformity with the natural characteristics of the landform. As a result of this, the spaces in ground floors differ from one house to the other.

The places whose planning characteristics are stable in many of our traditional houses are in the upper floors. These spaces include rooms, halls and lobbies (“Sofa’s”) in which the daily life is spent. At this point we can say that upper floors of the traditional housing units of the Yörük Village have been planned according to the necessities arisen from the historical lifestyle of our people who have a common culture.

In general, it can be said that housing units of Yörük Village have been understood that they take part in the daily life in the house at different hours of the day in different seasons of the year as open, semi-open and closed sections, materialised as developed buildings constituting of various spaces suitable to serve for different daily activities.

STRUCRUAL SYSTEM AND BUILDING MATERIALS OF YÖRÜK VILLAGE HOUSES

When the houses in the region are examined, it is seen that they have been built on a stone wall (with structural property) by timber framed technique. This technique is called “yeğdane” locally.

The foundation walls of Yörük Village buildings are made of rubble stones and their width are between 100-150 cm. As it is mentioned above these walls are built up to the ground floor level. The binding element is generally the mud plaster. The stone walls built from the foundation level support the floors built with posts. The Surface of the walls of the ground floors built of stone, are usually left without plaster. The width of such walls is between 55-80 cm. The stones used to build these walls are chalk-base ones taken from either nearby quarries or collected from streambeds. However, in some elaborate buildings the corner stones have been carved. In a number of village houses, on ground floors, one of the side of the courtyard is made of posts and wooden lattice work, thus it has a light and semi transparent structure.

In all the traditional houses in the village, the upper floors are built by the timber-framed system. This system consists of upright posts, horizontal beams placed on the bottoms and tops of such posts, and braces (also timber) at the corners of the building.

The post elements, which are made of fir or yellow pine, are two types in many houses as the bay-post (“main”) and stud (“secondary” ones). Their interval varies according to the filling material (mud-brick, stone) used in the walls. The posts placed on the edges of the windows are called “omuz” (shoulder) locally. In the adobe filled walls, the distances between the main and secondary posts are 130-150 cm. and 30-45 cm. respectively. In the stone filled walls however, the intervals between the posts is 20-25 cm.

The section of bay posts is 12x12 cm; 14x11 cm. or 15x15 cm. Some rare ones may be 20x20 cm. The section of studs is 10x10 cm. and 12x12 cm. The more the intervals between the posts the bigger the sections of the posts the bigger the sections of the posts. In some buildings there are lateral elements between the posts, called collar ties. In these types of constructions, posts rests on ridge plates and girders, which are fixed on the stone masonry foundations. Ridge plates differ as upper ridge plate and bottom ridge plate according to their location of timber skeleton system, which they belong to. Those ridge plates are fixed to each other with joining connections in a half-and-half fashion. Generally girders which are in 20x25 cm. or 25x25 cm. sections are placed into the system towards the same direction. Intervals between girders which can be observed from façade of the buildings are filled with stone pieces, if they are not covered with frame boards.

An important element of the timber-framed construction system is the brace (wall hold). In general these elements are included in the system with 30° and 40° inclinations to support the bay-posts on the corners of the building. The cross section of such elements is 12x9 cm.; they are placed in such a manner that their upper and joins are a little higher than the center of the corner post, it contacts the stud near by the window, then reaches the base. The timber frame members and also braces are bind to the system with nails. Although there are notches on the bottom ridge plates for connection with braces, in general we can say that no tenon technique other similar joining detail is used in the system.

In order to form the projections of the houses in Yörük Village, three different types of construction techniques are used. The cantilevered projections; These are build in such a manner that the load bearing girders belonging to the upper floors are cantilevered, 60-100 cm. from the buildings facades at the end point of the cantilevered projections, there are ridge plates, which carry the posts of the upper structure. In some examples girder elements are supported with a second beam. Projections supported with brackets; In this special building technique to prevent the bending of beams of the projections, the timber bracket elements lean on timber bands of the walls or grooves on the surface of the lower flat. Corbelling projection; this is a solution for reducing the size of timber girders by setting beams in two directions as one on top of the other and step by step.

The walls of houses which have a timber framed skeleton type of construction are formed by infilling the intervals of posts with materials like stone, mud-brick etc.. Some of these walls with stone infill are left without plastering. However, most of the buildings are plastered with a special “sandık harcı” (box plaster) containg of hair, straw and fur piceous. Except of these it is ascertained that some of the building walls are provided by “bağdadi” technique, which means by nailing laths to the two sides of the posts in horizontal directions and plastering. Although this type of plastering is used on the concave borders of ceilings which are the transition sections with walls of the rooms.

Boarding with timber planks of room floors is the common building technique of Yörük Village houses. In this type of boarding technique there is no rebate or overlapping astragal. All the planks are nailed side by side. Usually ceiling planks are fixed on to the beams diagonally or horizontally due to decorative purposes. The door wings and window sashes are hang, to the frames with traditional type of hinges.

Roof constructions of Yörük Village houses are out of timber and gable roofs, pitched roofs and hipped roofs are the common types in this village. Loads of roof structures are supported by timber post elements, which are rests on the ceiling beams of top floors and walls. Generally beams of roof structures are ends at the outer edge of the surface walls. Purlins which supports ridge beams are placed on the walls. According to the roof constructions ridge beams may be seen in horizontal or sloppy conditions. Roof posts have no collars or struts. Usually, rafters are rests on from the ridge beams to purlins. On the top of the rafters which are situated parallel to roof slope there are binding rafters also. Timber planks are nailed along the hall surfaces of roofs and covered with Turkish tiles. Eves surrounding the houses are shaped by beams or/and rafters which are projected from the surface of the buildings.

Painted ornaments in houses can be found generally in the main rooms. However, in some houses they can be seen in the “sofa” halls also. Such ornaments have been painted usually on the plastered walls, in niches, and on the ceiling cornices.

GENERAL EVALUATION

Today, in works regarding either individual buildings or a whole section of a town, a healthy harmony between the natural environment and the human one is sought besides the aesthetic beauty. In reality, the habitation culture of the Ottoman Period to which we are the inheritors has achieved this synthesis within the means of its times. Yörük Village, which is the last representative of this lifestyle with its unchanged settlement texture and its traditional houses. Hence the houses try to convey us silently the design concept whose main element is the human being. The prevailing architectural and settlement planning characteristics such as relationships among streets-houses-neighbouring house; formation of streets; community concept; plot dimensions; densities, all are the products of both healthy and aesthetic design concept which is contemporary as well. The settlement texture as a whole, with its dynamism; balance; rhythm; colour; tone; and other similar aesthetic values, represents a nearly ideal living place.

In summary, Yörük Village with its architectural and cultural heritage should immediately be taken under protection. On this point, besides the registration procedures a development plan with the aim of protection should also be prepared immediately.

Doç. Dr. Can M.HERSEK
G.Ü.Engineering and Architecture Faculty, Assoc. Prof. Dr.

Y.Mimar Şakir MERAKİ
G.Ü.Engineering and Architecture Faculty, M.A.